Закладка и устройство ленточного фундамента

Основное, что нужно разобрать подробнее – это некоторые технологические нюансы данного типа базиса. Сухие непучинистые грунты считаются наиболее подходящими для таких фундаментов с использованием мелкого способа заложения. Если глубина, на которую промерзает грунт, на участке довольно большая, то постройка ленточного базиса выйдет дороже в основном из-за того, что потребуются внушительные затраты на проведение земельных работ.

Основу ленточного фундамента составляет железобетонная полоса, которая проходит по периметру возводимой постройки. В результате получается своеобразная лента, заложенная под опорными стенами здания. При этом важно, чтобы по всему периметру было выдержано равномерное сечение.

На сегодняшний день различают несколько видов ленточных фундаментов, и выбрать наиболее подходящий — очень ответственная и важная задача. Если постройка крупногабаритная, то для неё лучше предпочесть металлические, цельные или сборные ленточные базисы. С таким основанием не придется думать о том, как сделать стены для цокольного этажа или подвала, ведь они будут возводиться по той же технологии, что и сам фундамент.

При неоднородном строении грунта присутствует риск неравномерной осадки основания. Ленточный тип базиса успешно справляется с такой ситуацией и благодаря единой конструкции сможет перераспределить усилия. Это, в свою очередь, не даст стенам дома перекоситься, и не допустит появления трещин.

Стройматериал, который используется при возведении фундамента, влияет на срок его эксплуатации. Дольше всего служат бутовые базисы на цементном растворе. Они могут эксплуатироваться 100-120 лет. Столько же могут прослужить монолитные бетонные фундаменты. От 50 до 70 лет – эксплуатационный срок ленточных бетонных оснований. Немного меньше прослужат кирпичные ленточные базисы, а именно, 35-50 лет. По конструктивным особенностям различают два типа фундамента – монолитные и сборные. Первые из них целиком собираются непосредственно на месте. Сборные возводятся из готовых частей заводского производства. Вместе отдельные его элементы скрепляются при помощи крана.

По глубине закладки различают базисы:

  • мелкозаглубленные,
  • заглубленные.

Выбор в пользу того или другого варианта зависит от степени нагрузки. Первый самостоятельно лучше всего использовать для легких деревянных строений и небольших кирпичных домов. Глубина его закладки составляет всего 60-75 м. Грунт для него предпочтительнее выбирать слабопучинистый.

Для сооружений с тяжёлыми массивными перекрытиями и стенами обычно используется заглубленный фундамент. Допустимо, чтобы грунт под него был пучинистым. Если под домом будет подвал или гараж, то такой фундамент — это единственный верный вариант. Но нельзя забывать, что для его возведения потребуется гораздо больше затрат средств и материалов. Такой фундамент, как правило, углубляют примерно на 25 см ниже глубины промерзания почвы. Под стенками внутри здания может быть глубина 45-65 см.

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